Morocco IS WESTERN SAHARA. Since then there has always been tension. Morocco controls one side, while the region’s independence movement (the Polisario) controls the other. The UN set up the Mission for the Referendum in Western Sahara (MINURSO) in 1991 to halt the conflict by imposing a ceasefire. The U.S. approach to the Western Sahara dispute for the past thirty years offers many insights into U.S. policy toward Morocco. The Polisario want independence and were at war with the Moroccan Government for a very long time, until a fragile ceasefire agreement in 1991. http://bit.ly/1OWEAecAre We Nearing The End Of Capitalism? http://bit.ly/1OWEAecAre We Nearing The End Of Capitalism? Morocco controls one side, while the region’s independence movement (the Polisario) controls the other. Information Two of them (UY601 and UT975) run the length of the region in a south westerly direction – likely to be used by aircraft transiting some routes between Europe and South America. The ceasefire has held, but there still has not been a referendum. @JKP. Why did the court discard the various accords Morocco had signed with the English, the French, the Russians, the Portuguese, the Dutch, etc. Western Sahara is a non-autonomous territory whose political and legal status has yet to be determined through the United Nations. Since Morocco invaded Western Sahara it has built a 1,700-mile desert barrier keeping Sahrawis out of the resource-rich west Published: 22 Sep 2018 Build a wall across the Sahara? Not much of a warning – just a recommendation that you don’t fly too low on some airways. On 31 October 1975, Morocco and Mauritania invaded Western Sahara as Spain (the former colonial power) looked on. The Polisario questioned Mauritania’s neutrality in 2019, after the country failed to mention the Western Sahara conflict during the 74th session of the General Assembly at the UN on September 24. “Morocco decided to invade the rest of Western Sahara because of its natural resources, phosphates and fishing. Western Sahara is a sparsely-populated area of mostly desert situated on the northwest coast of Africa. After Morocco occupied Western Sahara in 1975, they fired most of the Sahrawis working in the phosphate industry, replacing them with Moroccan settlers. Because the airways are over an active conflict zone, with a known threat of anti-aircraft fire. In 1975 Spain abandoned its colonies in North Africa, with the exception of the territories of Ceuta and Melilla. This extreme measure was taken in response to a December 2015 ruling by the Court of Justice of the European Union (CJEU) to suspend an agricultural trade agreement between the EU and Morocco because it included the Western Sahara (WS) within its territorial scope. If you include this disputed region, ... We want to hear what you think about this article. Recently a Polisario protest blocked a whole bunch of Moroccan truck drivers at the border with Mauritania, shutting down an essential route that connects Morocco to the rest of Sub-Saharan Africa. 1901), L’expertise universitaire, l’exigence journalistique, AUF (Agence Universitaire de la Francophonie), Mission for the Referendum in Western Sahara (MINURSO). In 1984, Morocco left the AU after the body decided to recognize the independence of Western Sahara, also known as Sahrawi Arab Democratic … Over the years, Morocco has maintained a stiff position on its claim to Western Sahara. Moreover most Sahrawis do not want to disunite with Morocco. Van Walsum does not deem this realistic because both the parties in the conflict do not want to make concessions. It is unlikely they would win against the Moroccan army. Today, U.S. Sen. Jim Inhofe (R-Okla.) spoke on the Senate floor about the struggle in Western Sahara. Morocco and the Polisario Front fought for decades over control of Western Sahara, until a 1991 UN-brokered ceasefire froze the conflict and left Rabat in control of most of the desert area. Morocco stepped in to claim sovereignty over Western Sahara, a territory nearly its size on its southern border. By Malainin Lakhal. Don’t attempt to cross into Algeria by land. Voir les partenaires de The Conversation France. Faced with consistent pressure from Morocco and Mauritania and itself undergoing a period of domestic uncertainty, Spain agreed to the partition of Western Sahara between the two countries despite a World Court ruling that Morocco’s and Mauritania’s legal claims to the Spanish Sahara were tenuous and did not negate the right to self-determination by the Sahrawis. The Sahara Desert is the largest and the hottest desert in the world. The people living in the western Sahara have more in common with Morocco than they did with the Spanish. Western Sahara has been occupied by Morocco, just north along the coast, since 1975. Petitioners Give Morocco’s Proposed Autonomy Plan Mixed Reviews in Hearing. The official position of the Kingdom of Morocco since 1963 is that all of Western Sahara is an integral part of the kingdom. As diplomacy scholar R. Joseph Huddleston has written: The front lines have moved from the arid desert to the realm of media and diplomacy. The first argument that these people put forth is that Moroccans are “occupying” Western Sahara and that Morocco has sought to “annex” the territory. There are currently three major airways affected. It has the potential to combine both parties’ demands. Western Sahara and the Polisario enjoy the backing of numerous human rights groups around the globe. The Western Sahara dispute was the reason why Morocco left the AU's predecessor, the Organization of African Unity (OAU), in the first place. Morocco and the Polisario Front fought for decades over control of Western Sahara, until a 1991 UN-brokered ceasefire froze the conflict and left Rabat in control of most of the desert area. Western Sahara is not a independent country Its a state and part of Morocco. Flora Pidoux receives funding from Fonds de Recherche du Québec - Société et Culture (FRQSC). Morocco IS WESTERN SAHARA. Nothing from Dakar yet. Algeria is, after all, facing its own political crisis. Want to talk to us? It’s been more than 40 years since Morocco claimed sovereignty over Western Sahara, setting off a conflict that seems no closer to resolution. Water scarcity is the lack of water in a region. A referendum has it negative points. The other airway, UN728 is a direct track from the coast to GCTS/Tenerife which may be used by smaller aircraft or those doing tech stops in the Canary Islands. This reintegration has happened despite the fact that Morocco’s sovereignty claim over Western Sahara is contrary to the AU’s protocols, which support the principle of territorial integrity. The Polisario themselves want the fight to escalate which should be a warning sign for those in airplanes above them. Western Sahara is effectively divided straight down the middle, literally by a wall. The conflict originated from an insurgency by the Polisario Front against Spanish colonial forces from 1973 to 1975 and the subsequent Western Sahara War against Morocco between 1975 and 1991. If you include this disputed region, ... We want to hear what you think about this article. The occupation sparked a guerrilla war between Morocco and Algeria's Polisario Front that ended in 1991 after the United Nations negotiated a ceasefire and deployed a peacekeeping force. In Morocco the name “Western Sahara” does not exist. Western Sahara is the second country in the world threatened most by water scarcity in the world. Years of military affront between Morocco and the Polisario followed, leading to Morocco controlling 80% of the territory until the United Nations (UN) intervened. It has relied on Algerian support for decades and, while it is likely that Algiers will continue to support the Sahrawis’ self-determination case, it is unclear how far it is willing to go. In February, the Kingdom of Morocco suspended diplomatic relations with the European Union. Through this strategy, the kingdom has been gathering continental support, primarily from Francophone African states. It also committed to organise a referendum of self-determination for the Sahrawis. El Salvador, Barbados and several more countries have withdrawn their support for the SADR in recent years. The UN plan… Why Morocco really wants back in the African Union. Since Morocco invaded Western Sahara it has built a 1,700-mile desert barrier keeping Sahrawis out of the resource-rich west Published: 22 Sep 2018 Build a wall across the Sahara? Because Algeria sees Morocco as a threat and is worried over what the future may hold in store if Morocco succeeds in the Western Sahara. Droits d'auteur © 2010–2020, The Conversation France (assoc. One of Morocco’s biggest diplomatic steps was reintegration into the African Union (AU) in 2017. Western Sahara. Écrivez un article et rejoignez une communauté de plus de 117 700 universitaires et chercheurs de 3 797 institutions. The future of the movement is unsure. » Subscribe to NowThis World: http://go.nowth.is/World_SubscribeSubscribe to Sourcefed! As the war of attrition seems to be playing to Morocco’s advantage, the window of opportunity for the conflict to be resolved through a negotiated agreement is closing. There has been no fighting in Western Sahara for 24 years, since a United Nations-monitored cease-fire between Morocco and the Polisario Front, but residents say they want independence. ... morocco want the sahrawi from tindouf to return home and have a decent life, but that does nt benefit to … The conflict pushed most Sahrawis to seek refuge in Algeria, near the town of Tindouf, where they settled in camps organised by the Polisario and partly funded by the UN. Ending the Algerian-backed separatists’ fight for control of the Western Sahara is one of Morocco’s top priorities. A former Spanish colony, it was annexed by Morocco in 1975. Picture: Groundhopping Merseburg, Flickr CC. The same phrase also alw… The people of Western Sahara have been forced to live here, struggling to return to a homeland where they can determine their own future. Water Scarcity in Morocco (Western Sahara) What is Water Scarcity? Question? The AU had recognised the Western Sahara – or Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic (SADR) as an independent nation back in 1982 – and Morocco wasn't happy about it. The Moroccan government refers to Western Sahara only as "Moroccan Sahara", the "Saharan provinces" , or the "Southern Provinces". Email is always easiest: a good one to use is messages@ops.group. AUF (Agence Universitaire de la Francophonie) apporte un financement en tant que membre adhérent de The Conversation FR. The sky over Western Sahara airspace is split between two FIRs –GCCC/Canarias and GOOO/Dakar. Moreover most Sahrawis do not want to disunite with Morocco. Continue to monitor Safeairspace.net as this situation develops. At the UN, Morocco has used its institutional involvement, particularly by threatening to withdraw its peacekeepers deployed around the world, to dominate and direct discussions about Western Sahara. What’s really important is exactly what is missing: why. Western Sahara is thus not a case of frozen conflict – but rather, of a war of attrition. As much as the international community hopes for the termination of the conflict, it must refrain from opting for an easy fix. Hong Kong revised entry rules for flight crew, Risk assessing Iran ops – the UIA 737 may have been shot down, Operational Summary – Relief flights to the Bahamas, The countries exempt from England’s travel quarantine, Fuel Facts: Let's get to the (freezing) point. Like all conflicts, your guess is as good as ours. It has worked hard in recent years to gather international support for its Autonomy Plan, submitted to the UN Secretary-General in 2007. Morocco occupied and annexed the northern two-thirds of Western Sahara (formerly Spanish Sahara) in 1976, and much of the southern portion of the territory in 1979, following Mauritania's withdrawal. In the top right corner of this building in the city of Casablanca there is a picture of current King Mohammed VI. October 30, 2011 August 2, 2017 Pambazuka News 0 Comments. Worryingly, there is a whole bunch of similar airways in the conflict zone that are controlled by the Dakar FIR which have no warnings yet. Université de Montréal apporte un financement en tant que membre adhérent de The Conversation CA. Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. Morocco weren’t happy, and breached the ceasefire agreement by sending forces into the demilitarized zone to remove them. Now a row over a remote desert truck stop is prompting talk of a return to war. Fuel Facts: Let’s get to the (freezing) point, The November Mega OpsChat – All the Links…. There sure is. Support for the Western Sahara as an independent state has ebbed over the years because of the growing importance of Morocco's $110 billion economy – the fifth largest in Africa. The European Court of Justice (ECJ) has ruled that EU agreements and treaties with Morocco cannot apply to Western Sahara, dealing a major blow … From then until 1991, there was a war between the Moroccan Government and the Polisario Front, which fought and campaigned for independence. A former Spanish colony, it was annexed by Morocco in 1975. Banks, telephone and insurance companies have expanded their services beyond the national borders. Yet, things have been slowly and discreetly evolving in recent years at Morocco’s behest. The territory was formerly known as Spanish Sahara until 1976 when the Spanish colonists withdrew paving the way for annexation by Morocco. Now the question is why morocco wants to control it with a democratic resolution of the opportunistic crisis created after independence ? Why Does Spain Need Morocco To Free Hostages In Western Sahara? While Morocco works to bring stability and growth, Algeria continues to oppose Morocco’s sovereignty over Western Sahara and uses the Polisario to do this. The North Atlantic Datalink Mandate – What are the rules? Morocco’s border with Algeria is closed. The United States has provided military, economic, and diplomatic support for Morocco’s war effort. It’s in Western Sahara – a disputed territory bordering Morocco to the north and Mauritania to the east – a stone’s throw from the Canary Islands. The Polisario made headlines last week when they declared war on Morocco. The United States has provided military, economic, and diplomatic support for Morocco’s war effort. Western Sahara is effectively divided straight down the middle, literally by a wall. It left the body’s predecessor, the Organisation of African Unity, in 1984 after the SADR was admitted as a member. Rabat hopes it can push those who oppose to reconsider their options in favour of Western Sahara becoming an autonomous region, and weakening the possibility of changes being made to its Autonomy Plan. Earlier this year, it rejoined the pan-African body. The Western Sahara dispute pits Morocco, which had annexed the former Spanish-controlled territory, against the Polisario Front, which seeks independence for the territory with the backing of Algeria. This includes man-portable air defence systems (MANPADS) and surface-to-air missiles. If the conflict escalates further, this is likely to complicate things. This strategy also expands beyond the continent. The plan does not yet offer sufficient guarantees in terms of political rights and representation to the Polisario for it to agree. It refers to the territory it controls as its "southern provinces". Morocco and the Polisario Front fought for decades over control of Western Sahara, until a 1991 UN-brokered cease-fire froze the conflict and left Rabat in control of most of the desert area. CREATED: 25 NOV 18:18 2020. Morocco Western Sahara FILE - In this May 20 2008 file photo, pro-independence Polisario Front rebel soldiers prepare tea in the Western Sahara region of Tifariti. Right now it is escalating and shots are being fired. WESTERN SAHARA PHOSPHATE • PotashCorp purchases phosphate from a Moroccan state-owned company called Office Chérifien des Phosphates (OCP). The plan received the immediate support of the international community, starting with the UN Security Council. North Africa has the most water scarcity in the world. The November Mega OpsChat - All the Links... Bamako Airport reopens following military coup, UIA flight 752: Iran military shot down plane after chain of errors. Western Sahara is not a independent country Its a state and part of Morocco. If you’re operating in the area, pay close attention to the risks involved. 125,000 people still live there to this day. But it cannot be implemented as presented. It wouldn’t be the first time an aircraft has been shot down there either – the Polisario downed two DC-7 airliners with missiles back in 1988. While the SADR is not an internationally recognised state, it continues to symbolically represent the Sahrawis’ self-determination endeavour. Why Morocco does not organize a free and fair referéndum in what is considered as the Africa´s last colony, because the sahrawi people is struggling for decades for a free and independent country … So why do they want to fight? In doing so, it invoked ancestral cultural and political ties. For example, religion and Berber culture. The king of Morocco's recent declaration that his country wants to return to the African Union after a 32-year absence appears to be a political maneuver to gain ground in the Western Sahara dispute. He was forced to apologise. Morocco stepped in to claim sovereignty over Western Sahara, a territory nearly its size on its southern border. The situation in Western Sahara had been stagnant for 40 years and the International Court of Justice had recognized Morocco’s presence as an occupation that must come to an end, he said. Morocco seized control of most of Western Sahara in 1976, following the departure of the former colonial power, Spain. On Wednesday, the European Court of Justice (ECJ) delivered a vindication for the people of Western Sahara.In a long-awaited ruling on a trade deal between the European Union and Morocco, the court reiterated long-established international law that Western Sahara is not part of Morocco, and therefore that trade agreements that include Western Sahara cannot be signed with Morocco. On 31 October 1975, Morocco and Mauritania invaded Western Sahara as Spain (the former colonial power) looked on. @JKP. Algeria support the Polisario, so the conflict has potential to grow beyond borders. In doing so, it invoked ancestral cultural and political ties. In the parts of the territory controlled by Rabat, Sahrawis face systematic repression by the authorities. Because it is the diplomatic and democratic way to do things not by force. Through my discussion with some of the petitioners who come to speak every year to the United Nations Special Decolonization Committee (Fourth Committee) in defense of the Polisario, I realized how lacking these people’s knowledge about the Western Sahara is. Although the conflict has been escalating for a couple of weeks, it is the first ‘official’ warning: B7433/20 – OPERATORS ARE REQ TO EXERCISE PARTICULAR CAUTION DURING FLT OPERATIONS IN WESTERN SAHARA AS PART OF FIR CANARIAS. The Moroccan government invaded and has occupied the Western Sahara since Spain withdrew in 1975. To make matters worse, they are suspicious that Morocco are flying drones over their territory – something that has been denied by Morocco. I have explored elements of Morocco’s push to dominate the narrative about Western Sahara as part of my research. On October 21, groups of Polisario Front’s supporters blocked the highway at Guergarat, in the extreme southwest of the Western Sahara. Demonstrations supporting Western Sahara’s self-determination are not permitted. A cease-fire and proposed referendum bring promise for peace in the territory, but U.S. leadership is needed to insure its … The Polisario, a politico-military organisation first created to fight off Spain, opposed Morocco’s claim. The Saharawi people were expelled from their homes by force, including the use of napalm. The weapons present a risk to aircraft as high as 12,000 feet. At first glance, it would seem like nothing has changed since 1991. (El Pais) Western Sahara's Conflict Traps Refugees in Limbo (June 4, 2008) Today the conflict is dominated by unarmed civil campaigns of the Polisario Front and their self-proclaimed SADR state to gain fully recognized independence for Western Sahara. Since its return, Rabat has managed to garner support from 28 member states to push (unsuccessfully, so far) for the SADR’s expulsion. Morocco has occupied Western Sahara since 1975 in violation of resolutions by the UN Security Council and a decision by the International Court of Justice. For example, religion and Berber culture. Western Sahara has been occupied by Morocco, just north along the coast, since 1975. Morocco has occupied Western Sahara since 1975 in violation of resolutions by the UN Security Council and a decision by the International Court of Justice. – OpEd . Once investment or enhanced trade deals were signed, states withdrew their recognition of the SADR. 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