Just when that was, however, is a matter of some dispute. The support is a medium-weight, plain-woven fabric consisting of two pieces seamed vertically to the left of center through the Christ figure. 37 (“A large ‘Descent from the Cross’ by Rembrandt, with a handsome gold frame by the same”); and 379, no. If this hypothesis is correct, one could then argue that Van Renesse was a far more central figure in Rembrandt’s workshop in the early 1650s than has hitherto been believed. Rembrandt (1606 - 1669) (printmaker) Associated place. [23]  [23]For a reproduction see F. W. H. Hollstein, Dutch and Flemish Etchings, Engravings, and Woodcuts, c. 1450–1700 66 vols. The individual who restored the painting prior to the 1909 sale did his best to solidify the Rembrandt attribution. The cross-sections also showed an unpigmented layer, presumably varnish or oil, directly on top of the dark layer. You can see the whites … no. Stichting Foundation Rembrandt Research Project, A Corpus of Rembrandt Paintings, vol. Rembrandt was undoubtedly closely involved in the rethinking of this composition and may well have blocked in forms to serve as a compositional guide, but no evidence of his own brushwork exists in the final image. The main conceptual difference is that whereas Rembrandt depicted the dead Christ lying prone in the Virgin’s lap to emphasize the profound emotional reactions of the Virgin and the various bystanders to Christ’s death, Van Renesse raised up the body of Christ so that the viewer focuses on Christ himself. The differential absorption pattern is useful for examining an object's internal structure as well as for comparing the variation in pigment types.] The Bearing of the body, showing Christ's body being carried to his tomb, and th… Like other paintings by Rembrandt on Christian subjects, The Descent from the Cross was not intended for a church, as in Protestant Holland places of worship were not decorated with painting or sculpture. Similar effects are found in the X-radiographs of Rembrandt’s Self-Portrait with Saskia, Gemäldegalerie, Dresden. The Descent from the Cross, the painting, remains one of Rembrandt's most famous and respected artworks, though there is also much to appreciate from this etched version. The Hermitage, St. Petersburg, Russia. The authors of the Corpus emphasize the complexities of the problems of attribution associated with this work. The text continues, "The sky also shows signs of having been tampered with. Europe (place of creation) Date. Just who may have been responsible for the execution is difficult to judge. 73D71 Descent from the cross: Christ is taken down from the cross, usually by Nicodemus and Joseph of Arimathaea who are standing on the ladders (both arms of Christ detached) Other works by Rembrandt Even in early depictions the details and posing of the composition, and especially the position of Christ's body, are varied. It also reminds us of the complex conservation issues that often confront our assessments of paintings by Rembrandt and his workshop. (Landau i.d. He centers Christ in a classic Laocoon-like pose, … Descent From the Cross: Descent From the Cross. Beneath that earlier figure, however, was yet another one: remnants of his black, flat-shaped hat still exist in an underlying paint layer. 5. 2166a. Initially a young man stood where the older man with a torch is placed. The cross-sections also suggest that the extensive changes in the National Gallery of Art painting were made only after the first composition had been blocked out with a thin, dark layer of paint. In the Hermitage painting, on the other hand, Joseph of Arimathea struggles with the weight of Christ’s body as others labor to pull out the nail that secures Christ’s left hand to the cross. In Rembrandt's Descent the body of Christ and the position of the three men holding it are clearly taken over. Holland, 1634. See Werner Sumowski, Drawings of the Rembrandt School, ed. Stylistic evidence suggests that the artist responsible was Constantijn van Renesse. 2166a. $125,000. 87, bought in); (his sale, Christie & Manson, London, 20 June 1840, no. This work reflected Rubens’s vigorous renewal of the early Netherlandish tradition of Jan van Eyck, Hans Memling, and Rogier van der Weyden. See Technical Summary, note 2, for further information about the letter of June 26, 1909. Finally, Van Renesse’s painting technique combines the smooth, flat planes of color and rough impastos found in The Descent from the Cross. The evidence suggests that it was initially larger in size, with a composition that resembled that of the Hermitage Descent from the Cross. The piece to the left is approximately 37.9 cm wide and that to the right approximately 73 cm wide. (Cambridge, Mass., 1948), 1:134–135 (also reprint, Rembrandt: Life and Work [Greenwich, Conn., 1964], 220–221), emphasizes that while the action has been reduced, the emotional content has been enriched through the stability of the composition and the breadth and vigor of the paint handling. Also vaguely visible in the X-radiographs are the profiles of two figures found in the Hermitage painting that were subsequently eliminated from the Washington version—that of the bearded man standing just below the youth with the candle and that of one of the male onlookers crowded to his right. But there can be no doubt of its authenticity although it strangely resembles (and yet differs from) another Rembrandt "Descent" of a date about 20 years earlier, at St. Walter L. Strauss, 10 vols. 3] before treatment, Rembrandt Workshop (Probably Constantijn van Renesse), The Descent from the Cross, 1650/1652, oil on canvas, National Gallery of Art, Washington, Widener Collection, 1942.9.61 have profoundly affected earlier assessments of the emotional content of the work and even its attribution, including that of the RRP. If an owner wishes to release a famous masterpiece nowadays he knows dealers ready to give him his price straightway.”. His father, Ludovicus (Lodewijk) Gerardus van Renesse, was a preacher. The feeling evoked by the Washington painting is more reverential than that in the Hermitage version. Descent from the Cross by Torchlight. This restorer, who made the addition of the tempera paint, must have felt that this aged man’s body should have been more massive than it had been painted, and he added significantly to its bulk. Nevertheless, while Rembrandtesque, the execution is not that of the master. [25]  [25]One such painting is the life-size Lamentation in the John and Mable Ringling Museum of Art, Sarasota, inv. While this layer generally appears to lie on top of the dark layer, sometimes it seems to pass through it and sometimes to lie below it. [4] The Bachstitz Gallery, preface by G. Gronau, 3 vols., Berlin, 1921: 1:5, pl. This painting was probably begun in the mid-1630s and reworked in the 1650s, at which time it was reduced in size. 116. Available for sale from Bonhams, Rembrandt van Rijn, The Baptism of the Eunuch (Bartsch 98; New Hollstein 186) (1641), Etching on laid paper, 19.4 × 20.8 c… West Building 43). 99); (F. Kleinberger & Co., Paris); sold to Fritz von Gans [1833-1920], Frankfurt-am-Main, by 1915. See also comments in note 5. Rembrandt Harmensz. Wolfgang Stechow, “Rembrandts Darstellungen der Kreuzabnahme,” Jahrbuch der Preussischen Kunstsammlungen 50 (1919): 229, places the painting within the broad tradition of Rembrandt’s paintings, drawings, and etchings. no. (related artist) In Rembrandt van Rijn: Rembrandt and Rubens …in a comparison of Rembrandt’s Descent from the Cross (1632/33) with the print after Rubens’s Descent from the Cross that Rembrandt unquestionably used. (Dordrecht, Boston, and London, 1989), 628–630, C49, is quite flawed. 5] Detail of head of the middle-aged man, Rembrandt Workshop (Probably Constantijn van Renesse). 3, 1635–1642, ed. Both the seam and the figure of Christ would typically be in the center of the composition, as in The Descent from the Cross in the Hermitage Collection. Another major change was the overpainting of the red cloak of Joseph of Arimathea, which substantially altered the shape of the figure’s body. Following Rembrandt’s passing in 1669, his remaining copper etching plates virtually stayed intact as they passed from collector to collector until 1993 when a sale at the London Original Print Fair dispersed the plates around the globe. no. Order reproductions from the Gallery Shop. Heavily discolored varnish and extensive repainting [fig. Credit Line: Gift of Henry Walters, 1917. With the removal of the discolored varnish and later overpaint, it has become apparent that the seventeenth-century changes to The Descent from the Cross were undertaken with a great deal of sensitivity. 1658a. As mentioned above, moreover, the artistic concept is also consistent with Rembrandt’s work from this period. An inscription on the back of a drawing, Daniel in the Lion's Den, in the Museum Boijmans Van Beuningen, Rotterdam (inv. 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